Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Grass family (Gramineae)
Six-rowed balrey (three grains per spike triplet)
Two-rowed barley (one grain per spike triplet)
Source: Kalda, M., MPIZ
Distribution, Yield, Use:
Production (1000t) Yield (dt/ha)
From Near Asia, grown today in a wide band of temperate climates all around the world, also in the subtropics and in the high areas of the tropics.
Still partly as bread grain in developing countries Groats and porridge for soups and broths Animal fodder, grains from protein-rich six-rowed winter barley Raw material for malting, grains from low- protein two-rowed barley 8-13% protein, 70% carbohydrate, 2% fat in seed
Region of origin: Region of cultivation:
Cultivation and Breeding:
The earliest finds of cultivated barley in Egypt and Near Asia date from 6000 to 9000 BC. The cultivated varieties arose from wild barley, with its brittle rachis and small grains, through selection and crossing. The two-rowed wild barley Hordeum spontaneum is seen as the ancestral plant. The six-rowed variety probably arose by mutation.
The breeding aims are improved reliability, increase in yield, and quality improvement. A high protein content is required for winter barley, a lower protein and higher starch content is required for brewers' barley. Resistance to fungal and viral diseases, and ability to grow under particular conditions (e.g. dry conditions, high salt content in the soil) play an important role.
Text by Dr.
Adapted to HTML by R.Saedler